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Title: Efficient Nanostructured 'Black' Silicon Solar Cell by Copper-Catalyzed Metal-Assisted Etching

Here, we produce low-reflectivity nanostructured ‘black’ silicon (bSi) using copper (Cu) nanoparticles as the catalyst for metal-assisted etching and demonstrate a 17.0%-efficient Cu-etched bSi solar cell without any vacuum-deposited anti-reflection coating. We found that the concentration ratio of HF to H2O2 in the etch solution provides control of the nanostructure morphology. The solar-spectrum-weighted average reflection (Rave) for bSi is as low as 3.1% on Cu-etched planar samples; we achieve lower reflectivity by nanostructuring of micron-scale pyramids. Successful Cu-based anti-reflection etching requires a concentration ratio [HF]/[H2O2] ≥ 3. Our 17.0%-efficient Cu-etched bSi photovoltaic cell with a pyramid-texture has a Rave of 3% and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 616 mV that might be further improved by reducing near-surface phosphorus (P) densities.
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  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Progress in Photovoltaics; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 10; Related Information: Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE nanostructured silicon; antireflection; metal-assisted silicon etching; density-graded surface; silicon solar cells