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Title: Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

An irreversible response of inorganic scintillators to intense soft x-ray laser radiation was investigated at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) facility. Three ionic crystals, namely, Ce:YAG (cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), PbWO4 (lead tungstate), and ZnO (zinc oxide), were exposed to single 4.6 nm ultra-short laser pulses of variable pulse energy (up to 12 μJ) under normal incidence conditions with tight focus. Damaged areas produced with various levels of pulse fluences, were analyzed on the surface of irradiated samples using differential interference contrast (DIC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effective beam area of 22.2 ± 2.2 μm2 was determined by means of the ablation imprints method with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Applied to the three inorganic materials, this procedure gave almost the same values of an effective area. The single-shot damage threshold fluence was determined for each of these inorganic materials. The Ce:YAG sample seems to be the most radiation resistant under the given irradiation conditions, its damage threshold was determined to be as high as 660.8 ± 71.2 mJ/cm2. Contrary to that, the PbWO4 sample exhibited the lowest radiation resistance with a threshold fluence of 62.6 ± 11.9 mJ/cm2. The threshold for ZnO was foundmore » to be 167.8 ± 30.8 mJ/cm2. Both interaction and material characteristics responsible for the damage threshold difference are discussed in the article.« less
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  1. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics; Charles Univ. (Czech Republic)
  2. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics
  3. Charles Univ. (Czech Republic)
  4. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); European XFEL CmbH, Hamburg (Germany)
  5. European XFEL CmbH, Hamburg (Germany)
  6. European XFEL CmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany)
  7. Univ. Bordeaux (France)
  8. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  9. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)
  10. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); FOM Inst. DIFFER (The Netherlands)
  11. Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Warsaw (Poland)
  12. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  13. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Inst. de minéralogie, Paris (France)
  14. Technische Univ. Wien (Germany)
  15. RIKEN, Hyogo (Japan)
  16. Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovak Republic)
  17. P. J. Šafárik Univ. (Slovak Republic)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optical Materials Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2159-3930
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States