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Title: Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.
  1. Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
NREL/SR--5500-64206; DOE/GO--102015-4670
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; KNDJ-0-40342-05
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Work performed by Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, Connecticut
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B)
Country of Publication:
United States
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION residential; Residential Buildings; CARB; Building America; low-load; multifamily; dwellings; SWA; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Steven Winter Associates; all-electric HVAC options; air-source heat pumps; construction type; heating loads; heating capacity; cooling loads; cooling capacity; right-sized; over-sized; HVAC; space conditioning loads; equipment selection