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Title: Relevant Studies for NERC’s Analysis of EPA's Clean Power Plan 111 (d) Compliance

The purpose of this paper is to describe multiple studies of wind and solar integration that have found CO 2 reductions of approximately 30%. These studies can be viewed in several ways, including as viable paths to compliance with the EPA rule, alternative ''bookend cases'' to compare to compliance based largely on natural gas, or something in between. The studies in this paper represent a body of work that can help inform the public discussion surrounding the cost and reliability impacts of complying with the proposed EPA CPP.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [4]
  1. WindLogics, St. Paul, MN (United States)
  2. Utility Variable Generation Integration Group, Reston, VA (United States)
  3. GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)
  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
Country of Publication:
United States
17 WIND ENERGY; wind; solar; integration; emissions reduction; Environmental Protection Agency; EPA; Clean Power Plan; CPP; North American Electric Reliability Corporation; NERC; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; NREL