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Title: Review and Status of Wind Integration and Transmission in the United States. Key Issues and Lessons Learned

The objective in electric power system operation is to use generation and transmission resources within organizational constraints and operational rules and regulations to reliably and costeffectively balance load and generation. To meet this objective, system operational practices have been created to accommodate the innate variability and uncertainty that comes from a variety of sources, such as uncertainty of demand forecasts, whether a specific generating unit will be available when called upon, the variability of demand from many different types of customers, and others. As more wind power is connected to the power system, operating experiences acquired during the past several years have generally confirmed the findings of wind integration studies: wind energy increases the level of variability and uncertainty that a system operator must manage.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
  3. American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States)
  4. Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  5. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration, Washington, DC (United States)
  6. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Carmel, IN (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1214995
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP--5D00-61911
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY WIND; INTEGRATION; TRANSMISSION; OPERATIONS; FORECASTING; WIND VISION; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; NREL