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Title: Controlling the actuation properties of MXene paper electrodes upon cation intercalation

Atomic force microscopy was used to monitor the macroscopic deformation in a delaminated Ti₃C₂ paper electrode in-situ, during charge/discharge in a variety of aqueous electrolytes to examine the effect of the cation intercalation on the electrochemical behavior and mechanical response. The results show a strong dependence of the electrode deformation on cation size and charge. The electrode undergoes a large contraction during Li⁺, Na⁺ or Mg²⁺ intercalation, differentiating the Ti₃C₂ paper from conventional electrodes where redox intercalation of ions (e.g. Li⁺) into the bulk phase (e.g. graphite, silicon) results in volumetric expansion. This feature may explain the excellent rate performance and cyclability reported for MXenes. We also demonstrated that the variation of the electromechanical contraction can be easily adjusted by electrolyte exchange, and shows interesting characteristics for the design of actuators based on 2D metal carbides.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 17; Journal ID: ISSN 2211-2855
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; MXene; intercalation; electromechanical actuator; atomic force microscopy