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Title: Conversion of 4-Hydroxybutyrate to Acetyl Coenzyme A and Its Anapleurosis in the Metallosphaera sedula 3-Hydroxypropionate/4-Hydroxybutyrate Carbon Fixation Pathway

The extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula (optimum growth temperature, 73 degrees C, pH 2.0) grows chemolithoautotrophically on metal sulfides or molecular hydrogen by employing the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3HP/4HB) carbon fixation cycle. This cycle adds two CO2 molecules to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to generate 4HB, which is then rearranged and cleaved to form two acetyl-CoA molecules. Previous metabolic flux analysis showed that two-thirds of central carbon precursor molecules are derived from succinyl-CoA, which is oxidized to malate and oxaloacetate. The remaining one-third is apparently derived from acetyl-CoA. As such, the steps beyond succinyl-CoA are essential for completing the carbon fixation cycle and for anapleurosis of acetyl-CoA. Here, the final four enzymes of the 3HP/4HB cycle, 4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA ligase (AMP forming) (Msed_0406), 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase (Msed_1321), crotonyl-CoA hydratase/(S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Msed_0399), and acetoacetyl-CoA beta-ketothiolase (Msed_0656), were produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli, combined in vitro, and shown to convert 4HB to acetyl-CoA. Metabolic pathways connecting CO2 fixation and central metabolism were examined using a gas-intensive bioreactor system in which M. sedula was grown under autotrophic (CO2-limited) and heterotrophic conditions. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the importance of the 3HP/4HB pathway in supplying acetyl-CoA to anabolic pathways generating intermediates in M. sedula metabolism. The results indicated that flux betweenmore » the succinate and acetyl-CoA branches in the 3HP/4HB pathway is governed by 4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA ligase, possibly regulated posttranslationally by the protein acetyltransferase (Pat)/Sir2-dependent system. Taken together, this work confirms the final four steps of the 3HP/4HB pathway, thereby providing the framework for examining connections between CO2 fixation and central metabolism in M. sedula.« less
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Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied and Environmental Microbiology; Journal Volume: 80; Journal Issue: 8
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
Country of Publication:
United States