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Title: Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive

Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that corrodes battery materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a controlled trace-amount of water (25-100 ppm) can be an effective electrolyte additive for achieving dendrite-free Li metal deposition in LiPF6-based electrolytes and avoid its detrimental effect at the same time. Detailed analyses reveal that the trace amount of HF formed by the decomposition reaction of LiPF6 with water will be electrochemically reduced during initial Li deposition process to form a uniform and dense LiF-rich SEI layer on the surface of the substrate. This LiF-rich SEI layer leads to a uniform distribution of the electric field on the substrate surface and enables uniform and dendrite-free Li deposition. Meanwhile the detrimental effect of HF is diminished due to the consumption of HF in the LiF formation process. Microscopic analysis reveals that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films exhibit a self-aligned and highly-compacted Li nanorods structure which is consistent with their charming blue color or known as structure color. These findings clearly demonstrate a novelmore » approach to control the nucleation and grow process of Li metal films using well-controlled trace-amount of water. They also shine the light on the effect of water on other electrodeposition processes.« less
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
48379; KC0208010
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nano Energy, 15:135-144
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
Li deposition; dendrite-free; water effect; LiF; SEI layer; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory