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Title: Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for allmore » feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [5]
  1. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
  2. Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  3. Yangpu District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China)
  4. Delta Research Corporation, BC (Canada)
  5. Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC07-05ID14517
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energies (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energies (Basel); Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Research Org:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
Country of Publication:
United States
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; STORAGE OFF-GAS; WOOD CHIPS; TORREFIED WOOD CHIPS; WOOD PELLETS; SWITCHGRASS; EMISSION FACTOR; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; storage off-gas; wood chips; torrefied wood chips; wood pellets; switchgrass; emission factor