skip to main content

Title: Modeling Selective Intergranular Oxidation of Binary Alloys

Intergranular attack of alloys under hydrothermal conditions is a complex problem that depends on metal and oxygen transport kinetics via solid-state and channel-like pathways to an advancing oxidation front. Experiments reveal very different rates of intergranular attack and minor element depletion distances ahead of the oxidation front for nickel-based binary alloys depending on the minor element. For example, a significant Cr depletion up to 9 µm ahead of grain boundary crack tips were documented for Ni-5Cr binary alloy, in contrast to relatively moderate Al depletion for Ni-5Al (~100s of nm). We present a mathematical kinetics model that adapts Wagner’s model for thick film growth to intergranular attack of binary alloys. The transport coefficients of elements O, Ni, Cr, and Al in bulk alloys and along grain boundaries were estimated from the literature. For planar surface oxidation, a critical concentration of the minor element can be determined from the model where the oxide of minor element becomes dominant over the major element. This generic model for simple grain boundary oxidation can predict oxidation penetration velocities and minor element depletion distances ahead of the advancing front that are comparable to experimental data. The significant distance of depletion of Cr in Ni-5Cr inmore » contrast to the localized Al depletion in Ni-5Al can be explained by the model due to the combination of the relatively faster diffusion of Cr along the grain boundary and slower diffusion in bulk grains, relative to Al.« less
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics, 142(1):Article No. 014704
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
SCC, stress crack corrosion, grain boundary oxidation, diffusion, nickel alloy, chromium depletion, aluminum