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Title: Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA

Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has been applied to extract various contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sediment and soil using electric currents. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the efficiency of EK remediation method for Hanford sediment (76% sand and 24% silt-clay) after artificial contamination with nonradioactive 133Cs (0.01 M CsNO3) as a surrogate for radioactive 137Cs. The initial 133Cs concentration in the bulk sediment was 668 mg kg-1, with a higher 133Cs concentration for the silt-clay fraction (867 mg kg-1) than for the sand fraction (83 mg kg-1). A significant removal of cationic 133Cs from the sediment occurred from the cathode side (-), whereas the removal was negligible from the anode side (+) during the EK remediation process for 68 days. Based on microwave-assisted total digestion, 312 mg kg-1 of 133Cs was removed from the bulk sediment, which corresponds to the removal efficiency of 47%. The EK method was significantly more efficient for the silt-clay fraction than for the sand fraction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses indicate that change in major crystalline mineral phases was insignificant during the EK remediation and the removal of 133Cs from the Hanfordmore » sediment by the EK method is attributed mainly to cation exchange with K in clay minerals. The experimental results suggest that the EK method can effectively remove radioactive Cs from the surface or subsurface sediment contaminated by radioactive materials in the Hanford Site, Washington, USA.« less
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Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 304(2):615-625
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
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Country of Publication:
United States
Cesium; Electrokinetic remediation; Hanford Site; Cation exchange