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Title: Direct observation of bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes growth via in operando x-ray diffraction studies

Alkali antimonides have a long history as visible-light-sensitive photocathodes. This study focuses on the process of fabrication of the bi-alkali photocathodes, K2CsSb. In-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and photoresponse measurements were used to monitor phase evolution during sequential photocathode growth mode on Si(100) substrates. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition for the initial antimony layer was observed at a film thickness of 40 Å . The antimony crystalline structure dissolved upon potassium deposition, eventually recrystallizing upon further deposition into K-Sb crystalline modifications. This transition, as well as the conversion of potassium antimonide to K2CsSb upon cesium deposition, is correlated with changes in the quantum efficiency.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [3] ;  [6] ;  [5] ;  [7] ;  [3]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Fritz Haber Institute, Berlin (Germany)
  2. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1184027
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-98CH10886; FG02-08ER41547; KC-04-01-010
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
APL Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-532X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
ATLAS Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; cathodes; photocathodes; antimony; crystal structure; X-ray diffraction