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Title: Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e⁻ aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e⁻ aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e⁻ aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e⁻ aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.
 [1] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7863; R&D Project: 16060; KC0403020
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 136; Journal Issue: 48; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7863
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; functional nanomaterials; liquid cell TEM/STEM; in-situ TEM/STEM; gold-palladium core-shell nanoparticles; solution growth of Pd and Au; diffusion of hydrated electrons; reaction rate; reaction order