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Title: Surface modified CF x cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

Li/CF x primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CF x, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CF x. The modified CF x, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance and an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. Shanghai Inst. of Space Power Sources, Shanghai (China)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Shanghai Inst. of Space Power Sources, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Engineering Center for Power and Energy Storage Systems, Shanghai (China)
  4. BL14B1 Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai (China)
  5. Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488; JMCAET; R&D Project: MA015MACA; KC0201010
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 48; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; primary lithium batteries; carbon fluoride; de-fluorination; ultrafast discharge