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Title: Expedited Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Labeled Phenols. A Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry

Fluorine-18 (F-18) is arguably the most valuable radionuclide for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging. However, while there are many methods for labeling small molecules with F-18 at aliphatic positions and on electron-deficient aromatic rings, there are essentially no reliable and practical methods to label electron-rich aromatic rings such as phenols, with F-18 at high specific activity. This is disappointing because fluorine-labeled phenols are found in many drugs; there are also many interesting plant metabolites and hormones that contain either phenols or other electron-rich aromatic systems such as indoles whose metabolism, transport, and distribution would be interesting to study if they could readily be labeled with F-18. Most approaches to label phenols with F-18 involve the labeling of electron-poor precursor arenes by nucleophilic aromatic substitution, followed by subsequent conversion to phenols by oxidation or other multi-step sequences that are often inefficient and time consuming. Thus, the lack of good methods for labeling phenols and other electron-rich aromatics with F-18 at high specific activity represents a significant methodological gap in F-18 radiochemistry that can be considered a “Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry”. The objective of this research project was to develop and optimize a series of unusual synthetic transformations that will enablemore » phenols (and other electron-rich aromatic systems) to be labeled with F-18 at high specific activity, rapidly, reliably, and conveniently, thereby bridging this gap. Through the studies conducted with support of this project, we have substantially advanced synthetic methodology for the preparation of fluorophenols. Our progress is presented in detail in the sections below, and much has been published or presented publication; other components are being prepared for publication. In essence, we have developed a completely new method to prepare o-fluorophenols from non-aromatic precursors (diazocyclohexenones) by a novel reaction sequence that uses fluoride ion as a precursor and various activating electrophiles, and we have improved methods for the preparation of heterodiaryl iodonium salts. Both methods have been used to prepare interesting potential radiotracers. Other advances have been made in labeling dendrimeric nanoparticle structures of increasing interest for multimodal imaging and in advancing labeling through fluorosilane bonds. Thus, the progress we have made substantially fills the significant gap in PET radiochemistry that we originally identified, and it provides for the field new methodology that can be applied to a number of current challenges, including the preparation of several molecules of interest as radiotracers, such as 2-[18F]Fluoroestradiol (2-FES) and m-fluorotyrosine, which we have illustrated. These methods can be used by any skilled radiochemist interesting in preparing these agents or similar fluorine-18 labeled electron-rich arene systems of interested for PET biological imaging in the most general sense.« less
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)
  2. Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Registration Code: m9WtTEFaBe
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Contributing Orgs:
This final report contains contributions from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the site of the PI (Katzenellenbogen), and Washington University, the site of the Co-Pi (Dong Zhou)
Country of Publication:
United States
38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; Radiolabeling; Fluorine-18; aromatic radiofluorination,