Enhanced Confinement Scenarios Without Large Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks: Control, Performance, and Extrapolability Issues for ITER
Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.
- Publication Date:
- OSTI Identifier:
- Report Number(s):
- DOE Contract Number:
- Resource Type:
- Resource Relation:
- Conference: Fourteenth International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers, 2 - 4 October 2013 Fukuoka, Japan.
- Nuclear Fusion
- Research Org:
- Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
- Sponsoring Org:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
- Country of Publication:
- United States
- 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY
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