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Title: A faux hawk fullerene with PCBM-like properties

Reaction of C 60, C 6F 5CF 2I, and SnH(n-Bu) 3 produced, among other unidentified fullerene derivatives, the two new compounds 1,9-C 60(CF 2C 6F 5)H (1) and 1,9-C 60(cyclo-CF 2(2-C 6F 4)) (2). The highest isolated yield of 1 was 35% based on C60. Depending on the reaction conditions, the relative amounts of 1 and 2 generated in situ were as high as 85% and 71%, respectively, based on HPLC peak integration and summing over all fullerene species present other than unreacted C60. Compound 1 is thermally stable in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) at 160 °C but was rapidly converted to 2 upon addition of Sn 2(n-Bu) 6 at this temperature. In contrast, complete conversion of 1 to 2 occurred within minutes, or hours, at 25 °C in 90/10 (v/v) PhCN/C 6D 6 by addition of stoichiometric, or sub-stoichiometric, amounts of proton sponge (PS) or cobaltocene (CoCp 2). DFT calculations indicate that when 1 is deprotonated, the anion C 60(CF 2C 6F 5)- can undergo facile intramolecular SNAr annulation to form 2 with concomitant loss of F-. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a fullerene-cage carbanion acting as an S NAr nucleophile towards an aromatic C–F bond. Themore » gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of 2 was determined to be 2.805(10) eV by low-temperature PES, higher by 0.12(1) eV than the EA of C 60 and higher by 0.18(1) eV than the EA of phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In contrast, the relative E 1/2(0/-) values of 2 and C 60, -0.01(1) and 0.00(1) V, respectively, are virtually the same (on this scale, and under the same conditions, the E1/2(0/-) of PCBM is -0.09 V). Time-resolved microwave conductivity charge-carrier yield × mobility values for organic photovoltaic active-layer-type blends of 2 and poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) were comparable to those for equimolar blends of PCBM and P3HT. The structure of solvent-free crystals of 2 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The number of nearest-neighbor fullerene–fullerene interactions with centroid···centroid (⊙···⊙) distances of ≤10.34 Å is significantly greater, and the average ⊙···⊙ distance is shorter, for 2 (10 nearest neighbors; ave. ⊙···⊙ distance = 10.09 Å) than for solvent-free crystals of PCBM (7 nearest neighbors; ave. ⊙···⊙ distance = 10.17 Å). Finally, the thermal stability of 2 was found to be far greater than that of PCBM.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  2. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  4. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  5. Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany)
  6. Univ. of Chicago Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-105706; NREL/JA-5900-64001
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-6539
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; AC36-08GO28308; AC05-76RL01830
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemical Science (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Chemical Science (Online); Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-6539
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; nucleophilic aromatic substitution; heptafluorobenzyl; perfluorobenzyl; fullerene; hydrofullerene; electron affinity; DFT; OPV; organic photovoltaic; time-resolved microwave conductivity; X-ray crystallography; PCBM; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; fullerene derivatives