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Title: Using galvanostatic electroforming of Bi 1–xSb x nanowires to control composition, crystallinity, and orientation

When using galvanostatic pulse deposition, we studied the factors influencing the quality of electroformed Bi 1–xSb x nanowires with respect to composition, crystallinity, and preferred orientation for high thermoelectric performance. Two nonaqueous baths with different Sb salts were investigated. The Sb salts used played a major role in both crystalline quality and preferred orientations. Nanowire arrays electroformed using an SbI 3 -based chemistry were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation, whereas arrays electroformed from an SbCl 3-based chemistry were strongly crystallographically textured with the desired trigonal orientation for optimal thermoelectric performance. From the SbCl 3 bath, the electroformed nanowire arrays were optimized to have nanocompositional uniformity, with a nearly constant composition along the nanowire length. Moreover, nanowires harvested from the center of the array had an average composition of Bi 0.75 Sb 0.25. However, the nanowire compositions were slightly enriched in Sb in a small region near the edges of the array, with the composition approaching Bi 0.70Sb 0.30.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0884-2914; PII: S0884291414003549
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 02; Journal ID: ISSN 0884-2914
Materials Research Society
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States