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Title: Coordinating Garbage Collection for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

Although solid-state drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDDs) for a number of workloads, they can exhibit substantial variance in request latency and throughput as a result of garbage collection (GC). When GC conflicts with an I/O stream, the stream can make no forward progress until the GC cycle completes. GC cycles are scheduled by logic internal to the SSD based on several factors such as the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests. When SSDs are used in a RAID with currently available technology, the lack of coordination of the SSD-local GC cycles amplifies this performance variance. We propose a global garbage collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID of SSDs. We include a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices and algorithms to coordinate the GGC cycles. We develop reactive and proactive GC coordination algorithms and evaluate their I/O performance and block erase counts for various workloads. Our simulations show that GC coordination by a reactive scheme improves average response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write-dominated workloads, response time was improved by 69% and performancemore » variability was reduced by 71%. We show that a proactive GC coordination algorithm can further improve the I/O response times by up to 9% and the performance variability by up to 15%. We also observe that it could increase the lifetimes of SSDs with some workloads (e.g. Financial) by reducing the number of block erase counts by up to 79% relative to a reactive algorithm for write-dominant enterprise workloads.« less
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  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IEEE transactions on computers. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; Journal Volume: 63
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)
Sponsoring Org:
SC USDOE - Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Storage Systems; Solid-state Drives (SSDs); Flash Memory; Performance Evaluation; Garbage Collection; RAID