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Title: Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)
  3. Tianjin Inst. of Power Sources (China)
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harbin Inst. of Technology (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN ‎1754-5692; 30490; VT1201000; KC0208010
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Energy & Environmental Science, 7(2):513-537; Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 2
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Li metal battery; dendrite; Coulombic efficiency; morphology; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory