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Title: Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grindsmore » had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).« less
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0961-9534
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biomass and Bioenergy; Journal Volume: 60
Research Org:
Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
09 BIOMASS FUELS agricultural straws; chopper; grinding energy physical and flow properties; hammer mill