Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition
This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.
- Publication Date:
- OSTI Identifier:
- Report Number(s):
- DOE Contract Number:
- Resource Type:
- Technical Report
- Research Org:
- National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO.
- Sponsoring Org:
- USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office
- Country of Publication:
- United States
- 14 SOLAR ENERGY BENCHMARKING; SOFT COSTS; FINANCING; THIRD-PARTY FINANCING; BALANCE-OF-SYSTEM COSTS; BOS COSTS; THIRD-PARTY-FINANCED; PV SYSTEM PRICE; INDIRECT CORPORATE COSTS; CUSTOMER ACQUISITION; SYSTEM DESIGN; PERMITTING; INSPECTION; INTERCONNECTION; SUNSHOT; Energy Analysis; Solar Energy - Photovoltaics
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