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Title: Direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions

This paper presents a single-step, environmentally friendly approach for the direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions. Ethanol was used for the simultaneous extraction and transesterification of lipids in algae to produce fatty acid ethyl esters at supercritical conditions. In this work the effects of process parameters dry algae to ethanol (wt./vol.) ratio (1:6-1:15), reaction temperature (245-270 C), and reaction time (2-30 min.) on the yield of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were studied. 67% conversion was achieved at 265 C and 20 min of reaction time. The calorific value of a purified biodiesel sample produced at optimum conditions was measured to be 43 MJ/kg, which is higher than that of fatty acid methyl esters produced from the same biomass. The purified fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed using GC-MS and FTIR. TGA analysis of algal biomass and purified FAEE was presented along with TEM images of the biomass captured before and after supercritical ethanol transesterification. This green conversion process has the potential to provide an energy-efficient and economical route for the production of renewable biodiesel production.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.
  2. American Refining Group, Inc., Bradford, PA (United States)
  3. New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Core University Research Resource Lab.
  4. New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Bio Security and Food Safety Center
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1097057
Report Number(s):
DOE-DANF--0003046-K9
Journal ID: ISSN 0016-2361; PII: S0016236113006893
DOE Contract Number:
EE0003046
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Fuel; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: C
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS Single-step conversion; Supercritical ethanol; Wet algae; Biodiesel; Fatty acid ethyl ester