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Title: Surface Characterization of Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles. Important needs and challenging opportunities

This review examines the characterization challenges inherently associated with understanding nanomaterials and how surface characterization methods can help meet those challenges. In parts of the research community, there is growing recognition that many studies and published reports on the properties and behaviors of nanomaterials have involved inadequate characterization. As a consequence, the true value of the data in these reports is, at best, uncertain. As the importance of nanomaterials in fundamental research and technological applications increases, it is necessary for researchers to recognize the challenges associated with reproducible materials synthesis, maintaining desired materials properties during handling and processing, and the dynamic nature of nanomaterials, especially nanoparticles. Researchers also need to understand how characterization approaches (surface and otherwise) can be used to minimize synthesis surprises and to determine how (and how quickly) materials and properties change in different environments. The types of information that can be provided by traditional surface sensitive analysis methods (including X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, scanning probe microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy) and less common or evolving surface sensitive methods (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance, sum frequency generation, and low and medium energy ion scattering) are discussed and various of their use in nanomaterial research aremore » presented.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [4]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
  3. Battelle Science and Technology India, Maharashtr (India)
  4. Daegu Gyeongbuk Inst. of Science and Technology, Daeju (Korea)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1092635
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA--95071
Journal ID: ISSN 0734-2101; 47663; 11696; 44635; 39891; 42295; 35204; KP1704020; KC0302020
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: 5
Publisher:
American Vacuum Society
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory