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Title: High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding

X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by split and- delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with state of-the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [7] ;  [7] ;  [2] ;  [8]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science
  2. Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE)
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-ray Optics
  7. Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE)
  8. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1089177
Report Number(s):
SLAC-REPRINT--2013-073
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 4
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE MATSCI