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Title: Setting and Stiffening of Cementitious Components in Cast Stone Waste Form for Disposal of Secondary Wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

Cast stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from Hanford vitrification plant. While the strength and radioactive technetium leaching of different waste form candidates have been reported, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior of Cast Stone, which is essential to ensure the proper workability, especially considering necessary safety as a nuclear waste form in a field scale application. The rheological and ultrasonic wave reflection (UWR) measurements were used to understand the setting and stiffening Cast Stone batches. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find the correlation between specific phase formation and the stiffening of the paste. Our results showed good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh Cast Stone mixture and phase formation during hydration of Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation originating from blast furnace slag was observed in Cast Stone made with low concentration simulants. The formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.
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Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Cement and Concrete Research, 46:14-22
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
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Country of Publication:
United States
Ultrasonic wave reflection; rheology; X-ray diffraction; stiffening; setting; nuclear waste