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Title: Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the videomore » records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;
  1. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1049474
Report Number(s):
SAND2012-4483
TRN: US201218%%561
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; AIRCRAFT; CAMERAS; GEOTHERMAL HOT-WATER SYSTEMS; GLAZING MATERIALS; HOT WATER; PERFORMANCE; RECOMMENDATIONS; RELIABILITY; STAGNATION; TESTING