skip to main content

Title: A METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE DOSE RATE FOR BOUNDING MASS LIMITS IN A 9977 PACKAGING

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that the hazards associated with the shipment of a radioactive material are directly proportional to its mass. This study describes a methodology that estimates the acceptable masses for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a 9977 Package compliant with the Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) external radiation level limits. 10CFR71.33 states that a shipping application identifies the radioactive and fissile materials at their maximum quantity and provides an evaluation demonstrating compliance with the external radiation standards. Since rather small amounts of some isotopes emit sufficiently strong radiation to produce a large external dose rate, quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. A methodology was established for determining the dose rate for bounding mass limits for a set of isotopes in the Model 9977 Shipping Package. Calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels using the MCNP radiation transportmore » code to develop a set of response multipliers (Green's functions) for 'dose per source particle' for each neutron and photon spectral group. The source spectrum from one gram of each isotope was folded with the response multipliers to generate the dose rate per gram of each isotope in the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers. The maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped within the regulatory limits for dose rate at the surface was determined. For a package containing a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions approach. Furthermore, the results of this analysis can be easily extended to additional radioisotopes by simply evaluating the neutron and/or photon spectra of those isotopes and folding the spectral data with the Green's functions provided.« less
Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1046161
Report Number(s):
SRNL-STI-2012-00316
TRN: US1203927
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC09-08SR22470
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: INMM Annual Meeting
Research Org:
SRS
Sponsoring Org:
DOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; DOSE RATES; FISSILE MATERIALS; ISOTOPES; M CODES; MASS; MEETINGS; NEUTRON SOURCES; PACKAGING; PACKAGING RULES; RADIATION TRANSPORT; TRANSPORT REGULATIONS; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS