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Title: Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1025678
Report Number(s):
PNNL-20693
830403000; TRN: US1104985
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; CONCRETES; DESIGN; ENERGY RANGE; GERMANIUM; GROUND LEVEL; HADRONS; IRON; ISOTOPE PRODUCTION; MUONS; NEUTRONS; NUCLEONS; PRODUCTION; PROTONS; SHIELDING; SHIELDING MATERIALS; SHIELDS; SIMULATION; TRANSPORT Majorana, cosmic-ray shielding