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Title: Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental,more » health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.« less
Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
10186035
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP--262-4678
ON: DE92016431
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-83CH10093
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Sep 1992
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES; SAFETY ANALYSIS; SAFETY; ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; HYBRID ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS; TESTING; SERVICE LIFE; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; MATERIALS; SOLID ELECTROLYTES; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS SODIUM-SULFUR; ELECTRIC VEHICLES; HYBRID; BATTERIES 330300; 330400; 540220; ELECTRIC-POWERED SYSTEMS; HYBRID SYSTEMS; CHEMICALS MONITORING AND TRANSPORT