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Title: Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors amore »nd DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a motivation deficit may contribute as much as an attention deficit to the manifestation of behaviors that underlie the symptoms of ADHD.« less
Title: Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging
Publication Date: 2010-04-28
OSTI Identifier: 987793
DOE Contract Number: AC02-07CH11359
Other Number(s): Other: 100428Swanson
Resource Type: Multimedia
Specific Type: Multimedia Presentation
Resource Relation: Conference: Fermilab Colloquia, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batvia, Illinois (United States), presented on Apriil 28, 2010
Research Org: FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States))
Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Publisher: Fermi Colloquia Online
Country of Publication: United States
Language: English
Run Time: 1:16:53
System Entry Date: 2016-01-27