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1,640 results for: "biosynthesis" OR "adenosine triphosphate"
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  1. Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fattymore » acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of FA transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for FA-biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the FA profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. As a result, the gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph.« less
  2. With an aim to understand the origin and key contributing factors towards carboninduced cytotoxicity, we have studied five different carbon samples with diverse surface area, pore width, shape and size, conductivity and surface functionality. All the carbon materials were characterized with surface area and pore size distribution, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron microscopic imaging. We performed cytotoxicity study in Caco-2 cells by colorimetric assay, oxidative stress analysis by reactive oxygen species (ROX) detection, cellular metabolic activity measurement by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and visualization of cellular internalization by TEM imaging. The carbon materials demonstrated a varying degree of cytotoxicitymore » in contact with Caco-2 cells. The lowest cell survival rate was observed for nanographene, which possessed the minimal size amongst all the carbon samples under study. None of the carbons induced oxidative stress to the cells as indicated by the ROX generation results. Cellular metabolic activity study revealed that the carbon materials caused ATP depletion in cells and nanographene caused the highest depletion. Visual observation by TEM imaging indicated the cellular internalization of nanographene. This study confirmed that the size is the key cause of carbon-induced cytotoxicity and it is probably caused by the ATP depletion within the cell.« less
  3. Here, the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) requires a proteasome system to cause lethal infections in mice. We recently found that proteasome accessory factor E (PafE, Rv3780) activates proteolysis by the Mtb proteasome independently of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Moreover, PafE contributes to the heat-shock response and virulence of Mtb. Here, we show that PafE subunits formed four-helix bundles similar to those of the eukaryotic ATP-independent proteasome activator subunits of PA26 and PA28. However, unlike any other known proteasome activator, PafE formed dodecamers with 12-fold symmetry, which required a glycine-XXX-glycine-XXX-glycine motif that is not found in previously described activators. Intriguingly,more » the truncation of the PafE carboxyl-terminus resulted in the robust binding of PafE rings to native proteasome core particles and substantially increased proteasomal activity, suggesting that the extended carboxyl-terminus of this cofactor confers suboptimal binding to the proteasome core particle. Collectively, our data show that proteasomal activation is not limited to hexameric ATPases in bacteria.« less
  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and proteinmore » degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world’s most devastating pathogens.« less
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  5. Nucleoside tri-phosphates (NTP) form an important class of small molecule ligands that participate in, and are essential to a large number of biological processes. Here, we seek to identify the NTP binding proteome (NTPome) in M. tuberculosis (M.tb), a deadly pathogen. Identifying the NTPome is useful not only for gaining functional insights of the individual proteins but also for identifying useful drug targets. From an earlier study, we had structural models of M.tb at a proteome scale from which a set of 13,858 small molecule binding pockets were identified. We use a set of NTP binding sub-structural motifs derived frommore » a previous study and scan the M.tb pocketome, and find that 1,768 proteins or 43% of the proteome can theoretically bind NTP ligands. Using an experimental proteomics approach involving dye-ligand affinity chromatography, we confirm NTP binding to 47 different proteins, of which 4 are hypothetical proteins. Our analysis also provides the precise list of binding site residues in each case, and the probable ligand binding pose. In conclusion, as the list includes a number of known and potential drug targets, the identification of NTP binding can directly facilitate structure-based drug design of these targets.« less
  6. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a mechanism of inter-cellular competition in which Gram-negative bacteria exchange polymorphic toxins using type V secretion systems. Here, we present structures of the CDI toxin from Escherichia coli NC101 in ternary complex with its cognate immunity protein and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). The toxin binds exclusively to domain 2 of EF-Tu, partially overlapping the site that interacts with the 3'-end of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA). The toxin exerts a unique ribonuclease activity that cleaves the single-stranded 3'-end from tRNAs that contain guanine discriminator nucleotides. EF-Tu is required to support this tRNase activity in vitro, suggesting the toxinmore » specifically cleaves substrate in the context of GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA complexes. However, superimposition of the toxin domain onto previously solved GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA structures reveals potential steric clashes with both aa-tRNA and the switch I region of EF-Tu. Further, the toxin induces conformational changes in EF-Tu, displacing a β-hairpin loop that forms a critical salt-bridge contact with the 3'-terminal adenylate of aa-tRNA. Altogether, these observations suggest that the toxin remodels GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA complexes to free the 3'-end of aa-tRNA for entry into the nuclease active site.« less
  7. Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore » BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less
  8. Lignin is a major resources for the production of next generation renewable aromatics. Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 is a bacterium that has been well-studied for the breakdown of lignin-derived compounds. There has been a lot of interest in SYK-6 lignolytic activity and many recent works have focused on understanding the unique catabolic pathway it possesses for the degradation of lignin derived monomers and oligomers. Furthermore, there has been no prior effort in understanding the central fluxome based on lignin derived substrates into value-added chemicals.
  9. In this paper, we compare the structure, activity, and linkage of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from σ 54 transcriptional activators and discuss how the properties of the DBDs and the linker to the neighboring domain are affected by the overall properties and requirements of the full proteins. These transcriptional activators bind upstream of specific promoters that utilize σ 54-polymerase. Upon receiving a signal the activators assemble into hexamers, which then, through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis, drive a conformational change in polymerase that enables transcription initiation. We present structures of the DBDs of activators nitrogen regulatory protein C 1 (NtrC1) and Nif-likemore » homolog 2 (Nlh2) from the thermophile Aquifex aeolicus. The structures of these domains and their relationship to other parts of the activators are discussed. These structures are compared with previously determined structures of the DBDs of NtrC4, NtrC, ZraR, and factor for inversion stimulation. The N-terminal linkers that connect the DBDs to the central domains in NtrC1 and Nlh2 were studied and found to be unstructured. Additionally, a crystal structure of full-length NtrC1 was solved, but density of the DBDs was extremely weak, further indicating that the linker between ATPase and DBDs functions as a flexible tether. Flexible linking of ATPase and DBDs is likely necessary to allow assembly of the active hexameric ATPase ring. Finally, the comparison of this set of activators also shows clearly that strong dimerization of the DBD only occurs when other domains do not dimerize strongly.« less

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