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  1. For this study, size-resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and hygroscopicity were conducted over a full seasonal cycle at the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, March 2014–February 2015). In a preceding companion paper, we presented annually and seasonally averaged data and parametrizations (Part 1; Pöhlker et al., 2016a). In the present study (Part 2), we analyze key features and implications of aerosol and CCN properties for the following characteristic atmospheric conditions: Empirically pristine rain forest (PR) conditions, where no influence of pollution was detectable, as observed during parts of the wet season from Marchmore » to May. The PR episodes are characterized by a bimodal aerosol size distribution (strong Aitken mode with D Ait ≈ 70nm and N Ait ≈ 160cm -3, weak accumulation mode with D acc ≈ 160nm and N acc ≈ 90cm -3), a chemical composition dominated by organic compounds, and relatively low particle hygroscopicity (κ Ait ≈ 0.12, κ acc ≈ 0.18). Long-range-transport (LRT) events, which frequently bring Saharan dust, African biomass smoke, and sea spray aerosols into the Amazon Basin, mostly during February to April. The LRT episodes are characterized by a dominant accumulation mode ( DAit ≈ 80nm, N Ait ≈ 120cm -3 vs. D acc ≈ 180nm, N acc ≈ 310cm -3), an increased abundance of dust and salt, and relatively high hygroscopicity (κ Ait ≈ 0.18, κ acc ≈ 0.35). The coarse mode is also significantly enhanced during these events. Biomass burning (BB) conditions characteristic for the Amazonian dry season from August to November. The BB episodes show a very strong accumulation mode (D Ait ≈ 70nm, N Ait ≈ 140cm -3 vs. D acc ≈ 170nm, N acc ≈ 3400cm -3), very high organic mass fractions (~90%), and correspondingly low hygroscopicity (κ Ait ≈ 0.14, κ acc ≈ 0.17). Mixed-pollution (MPOL) conditions with a superposition of African and Amazonian aerosol emissions during the dry season. During the MPOL episode presented here as a case study, we observed African aerosols with a broad monomodal distribution (D ≈ 130nm, N CN, 10 ≈ 1300cm -3), with high sulfate mass fractions (~20%) from volcanic sources and correspondingly high hygroscopicity (κ < 100 nm ≈ 0.14, κ > 10 nm ≈ 0.22), which were periodically mixed with fresh smoke from nearby fires (D ≈ 110nm, N CN, 10 ≈ 2800cm -3) with an organic-dominated composition and sharply decreased hygroscopicity (κ < 150 nm ≈ 0.10, κ > 150 nm ≈ 0.20). Insights into the aerosol mixing state are provided by particle hygroscopicity (κ) distribution plots, which indicate largely internal mixing for the PR aerosols (narrow κ distribution) and more external mixing for the BB, LRT, and MPOL aerosols (broad κ distributions). The CCN spectra (CCN concentration plotted against water vapor supersaturation) obtained for the different case studies indicate distinctly different regimes of cloud formation and microphysics depending on aerosol properties and meteorological conditions. The measurement results suggest that CCN activation and droplet formation in convective clouds are mostly aerosol-limited under PR and LRT conditions and updraft-limited under BB and MPOL conditions. Normalized CCN efficiency spectra (CCN divided by aerosol number concentration plotted against water vapor supersaturation) and corresponding parameterizations (Gaussian error function fits) provide a basis for further analysis and model studies of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Amazon.« less
  2. Chemical aging of organic aerosol (OA) through multiphase oxidation reactions can alter their cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and hygroscopicity. However, the oxidation kinetics and OA reactivity depend strongly on the particle phase state, potentially influencing the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion rate of carbonaceous aerosol. Here, amorphous Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) aerosol particles, a surrogate humic-like substance (HULIS) that contributes substantially to global OA mass, are oxidized by OH radicals at different temperatures and phase states. When oxidized at low temperature in a glassy solid state, the hygroscopicity of SRFA particles increased by almost a factor of two, whereas oxidation ofmore » liquid-like SRFA particles at higher temperatures did not affect CCN activity. Low-temperature oxidation appears to promote the formation of highly-oxygenated particle-bound fragmentation products with lower molar mass and greater CCN activity, underscoring the importance of chemical aging in the free troposphere and its influence on the CCN activity of OA.« less
  3. Here, the MIX inventory is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 29 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. Emissions are aggregated to five anthropogenic sectors: power, industry, residential, transportation, and agriculture. We estimate the totalmore » Asian emissions of 10 species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO 2, 52.1 Tg NO x, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), 28.8 Tg NH 3, 31.7 Tg PM 10, 22.7 Tg PM 2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO 2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006–2010 are estimated as follows: –8.1 % for SO 2, +19.2 % for NO x, +3.9 % for CO, +15.5 % for NMVOC, +1.7 % for NH 3, –3.4 % for PM 10, –1.6 % for PM 2.5, +5.5 % for BC, +1.8 % for OC, and +19.9 % for CO 2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach.« less
    Cited by 120Full Text Available
  4. Size-resolved long-term measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and hygroscopicity were conducted at the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in the central Amazon Basin over a 1-year period and full seasonal cycle (March 2014–February 2015). Our measurements provide a climatology of CCN properties characteristic of a remote central Amazonian rain forest site.The CCN measurements were continuously cycled through 10 levels of supersaturation ( S=0.11 to 1.10 %) and span the aerosol particle size range from 20 to 245 nm. The mean critical diameters of CCN activation range from 43 nm at S = 1.10 % to 172more » nm at S = 0.11 %. Furthermore, the particle hygroscopicity exhibits a pronounced size dependence with lower values for the Aitken mode ( κ Ait = 0.14 ± 0.03), higher values for the accumulation mode ( κ Acc = 0.22 ± 0.05), and an overall mean value of κ mean = 0.17 ± 0.06, consistent with high fractions of organic aerosol.The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, exhibits remarkably little temporal variability: no pronounced diurnal cycles, only weak seasonal trends, and few short-term variations during long-range transport events. In contrast, the CCN number concentrations exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle, tracking the pollution-related seasonality in total aerosol concentration. Here, we find that the variability in the CCN concentrations in the central Amazon is mostly driven by aerosol particle number concentration and size distribution, while variations in aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition matter only during a few episodes.For modeling purposes, we compare different approaches of predicting CCN number concentration and present a novel parametrization, which allows accurate CCN predictions based on a small set of input data.« less
    Cited by 15Full Text Available
  5. Here, a recent parcel model study (Reutter et al., 2009) showed three deterministic regimes of initial cloud droplet formation, characterized by different ratios of aerosol concentrations ( N CN) to updraft velocities. This analysis, however, did not reveal how these regimes evolve during the subsequent cloud development. To address this issue, we employed the Active Tracer High Resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM) with full microphysics and extended the model simulation from the cloud base to the entire column of a single pyro-convective mixed-phase cloud. A series of 2-D simulations (over 1000) were performed over a wide range of N CN andmore » dynamic conditions. The integrated concentration of hydrometeors over the full spatial and temporal scales was used to evaluate the aerosol and dynamic effects. The results show the following. (1) The three regimes for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation in the parcel model (namely aerosol-limited, updraft-limited, and transitional regimes) still exist within our simulations, but net production of raindrops and frozen particles occurs mostly within the updraft-limited regime. (2) Generally, elevated aerosols enhance the formation of cloud droplets and frozen particles. The response of raindrops and precipitation to aerosols is more complex and can be either positive or negative as a function of aerosol concentrations. The most negative effect was found for values of N CN of ~ 1000 to 3000 cm –3. (3) The nonlinear properties of aerosol–cloud interactions challenge the conclusions drawn from limited case studies in terms of their representativeness, and ensemble studies over a wide range of aerosol concentrations and other influencing factors are strongly recommended for a more robust assessment of the aerosol effects.« less

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