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Author ORCID ID is 0000000346836279
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  1. Here, the mapping of electrostatic potentials and magnetic fields in liquids using electron holography has been considered to be unrealistic. Here, we show that hydrated cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 and assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied using off-axis electron holography in a fluid cell specimen holder within the transmission electron microscope. Considering that the holographic object and reference wave both pass through liquid, the recorded electron holograms show sufficient interference fringe contrast to permit reconstruction of the phase shift of the electron wave and mapping of the magnetic induction from bacterial magnetite nanocrystals. We assess the challengesmore » of performing in situ magnetization reversal experiments using a fluid cell specimen holder, discuss approaches for improving spatial resolution and specimen stability, and outline future perspectives for studying scientific phenomena, ranging from interparticle interactions in liquids and electrical double layers at solid–liquid interfaces to biomineralization and the mapping of electrostatic potentials associated with protein aggregation and folding.« less

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