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  1. Here, we present a search for spatial extension in high-latitude (more » $$| b| \gt 5^\circ $$) sources in recent Fermi point source catalogs. The result is the Fermi High-Latitude Extended Sources Catalog, which provides source extensions (or upper limits thereof) and likelihood profiles for a suite of tested source morphologies. We find 24 extended sources, 19 of which were not previously characterized as extended. These include sources that are potentially associated with supernova remnants and star-forming regions. We also found extended γ-ray emission in the vicinity of the Cen A radio lobes and—at GeV energies for the first time—spatially coincident with the radio emission of the SNR CTA 1, as well as from the Crab Nebula. We also searched for halos around active galactic nuclei, which are predicted from electromagnetic cascades induced by the e + e pairs that are deflected in intergalactic magnetic fields. These pairs are produced when γ-rays interact with background radiation fields. We do not find evidence for extension in individual sources or in stacked source samples. This enables us to place limits on the flux of the extended source components, which are then used to constrain the intergalactic magnetic field to be stronger than 3 × 10 –16 G for a coherence length λ ≳ 10 kpc, even when conservative assumptions on the source duty cycle are made. This improves previous limits by several orders of magnitude.« less
  2. We present the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the binary neutron star merger event GW170817 and the associated short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) GRB 170817A detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor. The LAT was entering the South Atlantic Anomaly at the time of the LIGO/Virgo trigger (t GW) and therefore cannot place constraints on the existence of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) emission associated with the moment of binary coalescence. We focus instead on constraining high-energy emission on longer timescales. No candidate electromagnetic counterpart was detected by the LAT on timescales of minutes, hours, or days after themore » LIGO/Virgo detection. The resulting flux upper bound (at 95% C.L.) from the LAT is 4.5 × 10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 in the 0.1–1 GeV range covering a period from t GW + 1153 s to t GW + 2027 s. At the distance of GRB 170817A, this flux upper bound corresponds to a luminosity upper bound of 9.7 × 10 43 erg s -1, which is five orders of magnitude less luminous than the only other LAT SGRB with known redshift, GRB 090510. We also discuss the prospects for LAT detection of electromagnetic counterparts to future gravitational-wave events from Advanced LIGO/Virgo in the context of GW170817/GRB 170817A.« less
  3. We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger (BBH) event GW170104. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts was detected by either GBM or LAT. A detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over timescales from seconds to days covering the LIGO localization region is presented. The resulting ux upper bound from the GBM is (5.2{9.4) 10 -7 erg cm -2 s -1 in the 10-1000 keV range and from the LAT is (0.2{13) 10 -9 erg cm -2 s -1 in the 0.1{1 GeV range. We also describemore » the improvements to our automated pipelines and analysis techniques for searching for and characterizing the potential electromagnetic counterparts for future gravitational wave events from Advanced LIGO/VIRGO.« less
  4. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has an instantaneous field of view (FoV) covering ~1/5 of the sky and it completes a survey of the entire sky in high-energy gamma-rays every 3 hr. It enables searches for transient phenomena over timescales from milliseconds to years. Among these phenomena could be electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave (GW) sources. In this study, we present a detailed study of the LAT observations relevant to Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) event GW150914, which is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and has been interpreted as being due to the coalescence of two stellar-massmore » black holes. The localization region for GW150914 was outside the LAT FoV at the time of the GW signal. However, as part of routine survey observations, the LAT observed the entire LIGO localization region within ~70 minutes of the trigger and thus enabled a comprehensive search for a γ-ray counterpart to GW150914. Finally, the study of the LAT data presented here did not find any potential counterparts to GW150914, but it did provide limits on the presence of a transient counterpart above 100 MeV on timescales of hours to days over the entire GW150914 localization region.« less
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