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  1. Ketohydroperoxides are important in liquid-phase autoxidation and in gas-phase partial oxidation and pre-ignition chemistry, but because of their low concentration, instability, and various analytical chemistry limitations, it has been challenging to experimentally determine their reactivity, and only a few pathways are known. In the present work, 75 elementary-step unimolecular reactions of the simplest γ-ketohydroperoxide, 3-hydroperoxypropanal, were discovered by a combination of density functional theory with several automated transition-state search algorithms: the Berny algorithm coupled with the freezing string method, single- and double-ended growing string methods, the heuristic KinBot algorithm, and the single-component artificial force induced reaction method (SC-AFIR). The presentmore » joint approach significantly outperforms previous manual and automated transition-state searches – 68 of the reactions of γ-ketohydroperoxide discovered here were previously unknown and completely unexpected. All of the methods found the lowest-energy transition state, which corresponds to the first step of the Korcek mechanism, but each algorithm except for SC-AFIR detected several reactions not found by any of the other methods. We show that the low-barrier chemical reactions involve promising new chemistry that may be relevant in atmospheric and combustion systems. Our study highlights the complexity of chemical space exploration and the advantage of combined application of several approaches. Altogether, the present work demonstrates both the power and the weaknesses of existing fully automated approaches for reaction discovery which suggest possible directions for further method development and assessment in order to enable reliable discovery of all important reactions of any specified reactant(s).« less
  2. Reaction Mechanism Generator (RMG) constructs kinetic models composed of elementary chemical reaction steps using a general understanding of how molecules react. Species thermochemistry is estimated through Benson group additivity and reaction rate coefficients are estimated using a database of known rate rules and reaction templates. At its core, RMG relies on two fundamental data structures: graphs and trees. Graphs are used to represent chemical structures, and trees are used to represent thermodynamic and kinetic data. Models are generated using a rate-based algorithm which excludes species from the model based on reaction fluxes. RMG can generate reaction mechanisms for species involvingmore » carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. It also has capabilities for estimating transport and solvation properties, and it automatically computes pressure-dependent rate coefficients and identifies chemically-activated reaction paths. RMG is an object-oriented program written in Python, which provides a stable, robust programming architecture for developing an extensible and modular code base with a large suite of unit tests. Computationally intensive functions are cythonized for speed improvements.« less
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