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  1. The following gas-phase uranyl/12-crown-4 (12C4) complexes were synthesized by electrospray ionization: [UO 2(12C4) 2] 2+and [UO 2(12C4) 2(OH)] +. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dication resulted in [UO 2(12C4-H)] +(12C4-H is a 12C4 that has lost one H), which spontaneously adds water to yield [UO 2(12C4-H)(H 2O)] +. The latter has the same composition as complex [UO 2(12C4)(OH)] + produced by CID of [UO 2(12C4) 2(OH)] + but exhibits different reactivity with water. The postulated structures as isomeric [UO 2(12C4-H)(H 2O)] + and [UO 2(12C4)(OH)] + were confirmed by comparison of infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectra with computed spectra. Themore » structure of [UO 2(12C4-H)] + corresponds to cleavage of a C-O bond in the 12C4 ring, with formation of a discrete U-O eq bond and equatorial coordination by three intact ether moieties. Comparison of IRMPD and computed IR spectra furthermore enabled assignment of the structures of the other complexes. Theoretical studies of the chemical bonding features of the complexes provide an understanding of their stabilities and reactivities. Finally, the results reveal bonding and structures of the uranyl/12C4 complexes and demonstrate the synthesis and identification of two different isomers of gas-phase uranyl coordination complexes.« less
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  3. The concept of oxidation state (OS) is based on the concept of Lewis electron pairs, in which the bonding electrons are assigned to the more electronegative element. This approach is useful for keeping track of the electrons, predicting chemical trends, and guiding syntheses. Experimental and quantum-chemical results reveal a limit near +8 for the highest OS in stable neutral chemical substances under ambient conditions. OS=+9 was observed for the isolated [IrO4] +cation in vacuum. The prediction of OS=+10 for isolated [PtO4]2+cations is confirmed computationally for low temperatures only, but hasn't yet been experimentally verified. Lastly, for high OS species, oxidationmore » of the ligands, for example, of O -2 with formation of.O –1 and O–O bonds, and partial reduction of the metal center may be favorable, possibly leading to non-Lewis type structures.« less
  4. In-cavity complexes and their bonding features between thio-crown (TC) ethers and f-elements are unexplored so far. In this paper, actinyl(VI) (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) complexes of TC ethers have been characterized using relativistic density functional theory. The TC ether ligands include tetrathio-12-crown-4 (12TC4), pentathio-15-crown-5 (15TC5), and hexathio-18-crown-6 (18TC6). On the basis of the calculations, it is found that the "double-decker" sandwich structure of AnO 2(12TC4) 2 2+ and "side-on" structure AnO 2(12TC4) 2+ are changed to "insertion" structures for AnO 2(15TC5) 2+ and AnO 2(18TC6) 2+ due to increased size of the TC ether ligands. Themore » actinyl monocyclic TC ether complexes are found to exhibit conventional conformations, with typical An-O actinyl and An-Sliganddistances and angles. Chemical bonding analyses by Weinhold's natural population analysis (NPA), natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO), and energy decomposed analysis (EDA), show that a typical ionic An-S ligand bond with the extent of covalent interaction between the An and S atoms primarily attributable to the degree of radial distribution of the S 3p atomic orbitals. In conclusion, the similarity and difference of the oxo-crown and TC ethers as ligands for actinide coordination chemistry are discussed. As soft S-donor ligands, TC ethers may be candidate ligands for actinide recognition and extraction.« less
  5. Neptunyl( vi ) and plutonyl( vi ) oxo-activation with reduction to tetravalent hydroxides was investigated in gas and condensed phases, and by density functional theory.
  6. The highest known actinide oxidation states are Np(VII) and Pu(VII), both of which have been identified in solution and solid compounds. Recently a molecular Np(VII) complex, NpO 3(NO 3) 2-, was prepared and characterized in the gas phase. In accord with the lower stability of heptavalent Pu, no Pu(VII) molecular species has been identified. Reported here are the gas-phase syntheses and characterizations of NpO 4 - and PuO 4 -. Reactivity studies and density functional theory computations indicate the heptavalent metal oxidation state in both. This is the first instance of Pu(VII) in the absence of stabilizing effects due tomore » condensed phase solvation or crystal fields. Here, the results indicate that addition of an electron to neutral PuO 4, which has a computed electron affinity of 2.56 eV, counterintuitively results in oxidation of Pu(V) to Pu(VII), concomitant with superoxide reduction.« less
  7. In uranyl coordination complexes, UO 2(L) n 2+, uranium in the formally dipositive [O=U=O] 2+ moiety is coordinated by n neutral organic electron donor ligands, L. The extent of ligand electron donation, which results in partial reduction of uranyl and weakening of the U=O bonds, is revealed by the magnitude of the red-shift of the uranyl asymmetric stretch frequency, ν 3 . This phenomenon appears in gas-phase complexes in which uranyl is coordinated by electron donor ligands: the ν 3 red-shift increases as the number of ligands and their proton affinity (PA) increases. Because PA is a measure of themore » enthalpy change associated with a proton-ligand interaction, which is much stronger and of a different nature than metal ion-ligand bonding, it is not necessarily expected that ligand PAs should reliably predict uranyl-ligand bonding and the resulting ν 3 red-shift. In this study, ν 3 was measured for uranyl coordinated by ligands with a relatively broad range of PAs, revealing a surprisingly good correlation between PA and ν 3 frequency. From computed ν 3 frequencies for bare UO 2 cations and neutrals, it is inferred that the effective charge of uranyl in UO 2(L) n 2+ complexes can be reduced to near zero upon ligation by sufficiently strong charge-donor ligands. The basis for the correlation between ν 3 and ligand PAs, as well as limitations and deviations from it, are considered. It is demonstrated that the correlation evidently extends to a ligand that exhibits polydentate metal ion coordination.« less
  8. Recent efforts to activate the strong uranium-oxygen bonds in the dioxo uranyl cation have been limited to single oxo-group activation through either uranyl reduction and functionalization in solution, or by collision induced dissociation (CID) in the gas-phase, using mass spectrometry (MS). Here, we report and investigate the surprising double activation of uranyl by an organic ligand, 3,4,3-LI(CAM), leading to the formation of a formal U 6+ chelate in the gas-phase. The cleavage of both uranyl oxo bonds was experimentally evidence d by CID, using deuterium and 18O isotopic substitutions, and by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Density functional theorymore » (DFT) computations predict that the overall reaction requires only 132 kJ/mol, with the first oxygen activation entailing about 107 kJ/mol. Here, combined with analysis of similar, but unreactive ligands, these results shed light on the chelation-driven mechanism of uranyl oxo bond cleavage, demonstrating its dependence on the presence of ligand hydroxyl protons available for direct interactions with the uranyl oxygens.« less
  9. In this paper, the reaction of uranyl nitrate with terephthalic acid (H 2TP) under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of an organic base, 1,3-(4,4'-bispyridyl)propane (BPP) or 4,4'-bipyridine (BPY), provided four uranyl terephthalate compounds with different entangled structures by a pH-tuning method. [UO 2(TP) 1.5](H 2BPP) 0.5·2H 2O (1) obtained in a relatively acidic solution (final aqueous pH, 4.28) crystallizes in the form of a noninterpenetrated honeycomb-like two-dimensional network structure. An elevation of the solution pH (final pH, 5.21) promotes the formation of a dimeric uranyl-mediated polycatenated framework, [(UO 2) 2(μ-OH) 2(TP) 2] 2(H 2BPP) 2·4.5H 2O (2). Another new polycatenatedmore » framework with a monomeric uranyl unit, [(UO 2) 2(TP) 3](H 2BPP) (3), begins to emerge as a minor accompanying product of 2 when the pH is increased up to 6.61, and turns out to be a significant product at pH 7.00. When more rigid but small-size BPY molecules replace BPP molecules, [UO 2(TP) 1.5](H 2BPP) 0.5 (4) with a polycatenated framework similar to 3 was obtained in a relatively acidic solution (final pH, 4.81). The successful preparation of 2–4 represents the first report of uranyl–organic polycatenated frameworks derived from a simple H 2TP linker. Finally, a direct comparison between these polycatenated frameworks and previously reported uranyl terephthalate compounds suggests that the template and cavity-filling effects of organic bases (such as BPP or BPY), in combination with specific hydrothermal conditions, promote the formation of uranyl terephthalate polycatenated frameworks.« less

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