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  1. One of the important challenges in condensed matter science is to understand ultrafast, atomic-scale fluctuations that dictate dynamic processes in equilibrium and non-equilibrium materials. Here, we report an important step towards reaching that goal by using a state-of-the-art perfect crystal based split-and-delay system, capable of splitting individual X-ray pulses and introducing femtosecond to nanosecond time delays. We show the results of an ultrafast hard X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiment at LCLS where split X-ray pulses were used to measure the dynamics of gold nanoparticles suspended in hexane. We show how reliable speckle contrast values can be extracted even from verymore » low intensity free electron laser (FEL) speckle patterns by applying maximum likelihood fitting, thus demonstrating the potential of a split-and-delay approach for dynamics measurements at FEL sources. This will enable the characterization of equilibrium and, importantly also reversible non-equilibrium processes in atomically disordered materials.« less
  2. In this study we describe a setup for x-ray scattering experiments on complex fluids using a liquid jet. The setup supports Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) geometries. The jet is formed by a gas-dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) allowing for diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm at a jet length of several hundred μm. To control jet properties such as jet length, diameter, or flow rate, the instrument is equipped with several diagnostic tools. Three microscopes are installed to quantify jet dimensions and stability in situ. The setup has been used at several beamlines performing both SAXSmore » and WAXS experiments. Finally, as a typical example we show an experiment on a colloidal dispersion in a liquid jet at the X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser.« less

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