Formation of carbon nanostructures in nuclear graphite under high-temperature in situ electron-irradiationDefect evolution in nuclear graphite has been studied in real time using high-temperature in situ transmission electron microscopy. In situ electron-irradiation was conducted at 800 °C on a 200 kV transmission electron microscope with a dose rate, given in terms of displacements per atom per second, of approximately 1.46 × 10 –3 dpa/s. Defect domains consisting of ordered arrangements of pentagons, hexagons, and heptagons exist intrinsically in nuclear graphite and in addition are readily produced via electron-irradiation; however, at elevated temperatures these defect domains undergo atomic rearrangements resulting in the formation of carbon nanostructures via curling and closure of themore »
Graphite is a key component in designs of current and future nuclear reactors whose in-service lifetimes are dependent upon the mechanical performance of the graphite. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects which have a dynamic effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of graphite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can offer real-time monitoring of the dynamic atomic-level response of graphite subjected to irradiation; however, conventional TEM specimen-preparation techniques, such as argon ion milling itself, damage the graphite specimen and introduce lattice defects. It is impossible to distinguish these defects from the ones created by electron or neutron irradiation. Thus,tomore »
Understanding the reaction of nuclear graphite with molecular oxygen: Kinetics, transport, and structural evolutionA thorough understanding of oxidation is important when considering the health and integrity of graphite components in graphite reactors. For the next generation of graphite reactors, HTGRs specifically, an unlikely air ingress has been deemed significant enough to have made its way into the licensing applications of many international licensing bodies. While a substantial body of literature exists on nuclear graphite oxidation in the presence of molecular oxygen and significant efforts have been made to characterize oxidation kinetics of various grades, the value of existing information is somewhat limited. Often, multiple competing processes, including reaction kinetics, mass transfer, and microstructuralmore »
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