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  1. Defect evolution in nuclear graphite has been studied in real time using high-temperature in situ transmission electron microscopy. In situ electron-irradiation was conducted at 800 °C on a 200 kV transmission electron microscope with a dose rate, given in terms of displacements per atom per second, of approximately 1.46 × 10 –3 dpa/s. Defect domains consisting of ordered arrangements of pentagons, hexagons, and heptagons exist intrinsically in nuclear graphite and in addition are readily produced via electron-irradiation; however, at elevated temperatures these defect domains undergo atomic rearrangements resulting in the formation of carbon nanostructures via curling and closure of themore » basal planes. The formation of fullerenes and other structures due to thermal annealing or high-temperature electron-irradiation has been observed in disordered regions of the microstructure and interstitially between basal planes. Furthermore, these defect structures result in localized swelling and expansion of crystallites along the c axis; thus, it is proposed as one of the many atomic mechanisms involved in the dimensional change of nuclear graphite subjected to high-temperature irradiation.« less
  2. Graphite is a key component in designs of current and future nuclear reactors whose in-service lifetimes are dependent upon the mechanical performance of the graphite. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects which have a dynamic effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of graphite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can offer real-time monitoring of the dynamic atomic-level response of graphite subjected to irradiation; however, conventional TEM specimen-preparation techniques, such as argon ion milling itself, damage the graphite specimen and introduce lattice defects. It is impossible to distinguish these defects from the ones created by electron or neutron irradiation. Thus,tomore » ensure that TEM specimens are artifact-free, a new oxidation-based technique has been developed. Bulk nuclear grades of graphite (IG-110 and NBG-18) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were initially mechanically thinned to ~60μm. Discs 3mm in diameter were then oxidized at temperatures between 575°C and 625°C in oxidizing gasses using a new jet-polisher-like set-up in order to achieve optimal oxidation conditions to create self-supporting electron-transparent TEM specimens. The quality of these oxidized specimens were established using optical and electron microscopy. Samples oxidized at 575°C exhibited large areas of electron transparency and the corresponding lattice imaging showed no apparent damage to the graphite lattice.« less
  3. A thorough understanding of oxidation is important when considering the health and integrity of graphite components in graphite reactors. For the next generation of graphite reactors, HTGRs specifically, an unlikely air ingress has been deemed significant enough to have made its way into the licensing applications of many international licensing bodies. While a substantial body of literature exists on nuclear graphite oxidation in the presence of molecular oxygen and significant efforts have been made to characterize oxidation kinetics of various grades, the value of existing information is somewhat limited. Often, multiple competing processes, including reaction kinetics, mass transfer, and microstructuralmore » evolution, are lumped together into a single rate expression that limits the ability to translate this information to different conditions. This article reviews the reaction of graphite with molecular oxygen in terms of the reaction kinetics, gas transport, and microstructural evolution of graphite. It also presents the foundations of a model for the graphite-molecular oxygen reaction system that is kinetically independent of graphite grade, and is capable of describing both the bulk and local oxidation rates under a wide range of conditions applicable to air-ingress.« less

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