The understanding of fracture phenomena of a material at extremely high strain rates is a key issue for a wide variety of scientific research ranging from applied science and technological developments to fundamental science such as laser-matter interaction and geology. Despite its interest, its study relies on a fine multiscale description, in between the atomic scale and macroscopic processes, so far only achievable by large-scale atomic simulations. Direct ultrafast real-time monitoring of dynamic fracture (spallation) at the atomic lattice scale with picosecond time resolution was beyond the reach of experimental techniques. We show that the coupling between a high-power opticalmore »
The performance of a hard X-ray split-and-delay optical (SDO) system with a wavefront division scheme was investigated at the hard X-ray free-electron laser facility SACLA. For the wavefront division, beam splitters made of edge-polished perfect Si(220) crystals were employed. We characterized the beam properties of the SDO system, and investigated its capabilities for beam manipulation and diagnostics. First, it was confirmed that shot-to-shot non-invasive diagnostics of pulse energies for both branches in the SDO system was feasible. Second, nearly ideal and identical focal profiles for both branches were obtained with a spot size of ~1.5 µm in full width atmore »
Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferogramsTemporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD) between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales. The work presented here characterizes the temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses by capturingmore »
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