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  1. Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch angle scattering of tens of keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and tens of keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4–5 compressional pulsations and modulation of whistler-mode chorus using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms. In the current study, we present simultaneous in situ observations of structured chorusmore » waves and an apparent field line resonance (in the Pc4–5 range) as a result of a substorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes, along with ground-based observations of pulsating aurora. We demonstrate the likely scenario being one of substorm-driven Pc4–5 ULF pulsations modulating chorus waves, and thus providing the driver for pulsating particle precipitation into the Earth's atmosphere. Interestingly, the modulated chorus wave and ULF wave periods are well correlated, with chorus occurring at half the periodicity of the ULF waves. We also show, for the first time, a particular few-Hz modulation of individual chorus elements that coincides with the same modulation in a nearby pulsating aurora patch. As a result, such modulation has been noticed as a high-frequency component in ground-based camera data of pulsating aurora for decades and may be a result of nonlinear chorus wave interactions in the equatorial region.« less
  2. Substorms generally inject tens to hundreds of keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeVelectron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the premidnight sector at L ~ 5.5, Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50 mV/m) over ~40 s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ~3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarizationmore » front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the injections increased the MeV electron phase space density by 1 order of magnitude in less than 3 h in the outer radiation belt (L > 4.8). Our observations provide evidence that deep injections can supply significant MeV electrons.« less
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