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Author ORCID ID is 0000000306668063
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  1. The demand of sustainable power supply requires high-performance cost-effective energy storage technologies. Here in this paperwe report a high-rate long-life low-cost sodium-ion battery full-cell system by innovating both the anode and the electrolyte. The redox couple of manganese(I/II) in Prussian blue analogs enables a high-rate and stable anode. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering provide direct evidence suggesting the existence of monovalent manganese in the charged anode. There is a strong hybridization between cyano ligands and manganese-3d states, which benefits the electronic property for improving rate performance. Additionally, we employ an organic-aqueous cosolvent electrolyte to solve themore » long-standing solubility issue of Prussian blue analogs. A full-cell sodium-ion battery with low-cost Prussian blue analogs in both electrodes and co-solvent electrolyte retains 95% of its initial discharge capacity after 1000 cycles at 1C and 9 5% depth of discharge. The revealed manganese(I/II) redox couple inspires conceptual innovations of batteries based on atypical oxidation states.« less
  2. Here, the discovery of facile Li transport in disordered, Li-excess rocksalt materials has opened a vast new chemical space for the development of high energy density, low cost Li-ion cathodes. We develop a strategy for obtaining optimized compositions within this class of materials, exhibiting high capacity and energy density as well as good reversibility, by using a combination of low-valence transition metal redox and a high-valence redox active charge compensator, as well as fluorine substitution for oxygen. Furthermore, we identify a new constraint on high-performance compositions by demonstrating the necessity of excess Li capacity as a means of counteracting high-voltagemore » tetrahedral Li formation, Li-binding by fluorine and the associated irreversibility. Specifically, we demonstrate that 10–12% of Li capacity is lost due to tetrahedral Li formation, and 0.4–0.8 Li per F dopant is made inaccessible at moderate voltages due to Li–F binding. We demonstrate the success of this strategy by realizing a series of high-performance disordered oxyfluoride cathode materials based on Mn 2+/4+ and V 4+/5+ redox.« less
  3. Recent research has explored combining conventional transition metal redox with anionic lattice oxygen redox as a new and exciting direction to search for high-capacity lithium-ion cathodes. For this study, we probe the poorly understood electrochemical activity of anionic oxygen from a material perspective by elucidating the effect of the transition metal on oxygen redox activity. We study two lithium-rich layered oxides, specifically lithium nickel metal oxides where metal is either manganese or ruthenium, which possess similar structure and discharge characteristics, but exhibit distinctly different charge profiles. By combining X-ray spectroscopy with operando differential electrochemical mass spectrometry, we reveal completely differentmore » oxygen redox activity in each material, likely resulting from the different interaction between the lattice oxygen and transition metals. This work provides additional insights into the complex mechanism of oxygen redox and development of advanced high-capacity lithium-ion cathodes.« less
  4. © 2017 The Author(s). Lithium-rich layered transition metal oxide positive electrodes offer access to anion redox at high potentials, thereby promising high energy densities for lithium-ion batteries. However, anion redox is also associated with several unfavorable electrochemical properties, such as open-circuit voltage hysteresis. Here we reveal that in Li 1.17-x Ni 0.21 Co 0.08 Mn 0.54 O 2 , these properties arise from a strong coupling between anion redox and cation migration. We combine various X-ray spectroscopic, microscopic, and structural probes to show that partially reversible transition metal migration decreases the potential of the bulk oxygen redox couple by >more » 1 V, leading to a reordering in the anionic and cationic redox potentials during cycling. First principles calculations show that this is due to the drastic change in the local oxygen coordination environments associated with the transition metal migration. We propose that this mechanism is involved in stabilizing the oxygen redox couple, which we observe spectroscopically to persist for 500 charge/discharge cycles.« less
  5. Design rules for high capacity disordered rocksalt Li-ion cathodes applied to the Li–Mn–V–O–F system.
  6. We performed a comparative study of the soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the LiMn2O4 and Li1.15Mn1.85O4 electrode materials with a quantitative analysis of the Mn oxidation states. The revealed redox evolution of Mn upon the electrochemical cycling clarifies the effect of the excess Li in the materials, which naturally explains the different electrochemical performance. The spectral analysis perfectly agrees with the different initial cycling capacities of the two materials. The results show unambiguously that Mn3+ starts to dominate the electrode surface after only one cycle. More importantly, the data show that, while LiMn2O4 electrodes follow the nominal Mn redox evolution,more » the formation of Mn3+ on the electrode surface is largely retarded for the Li1.15Mn1.85O4 during most of the electrochemical process. Such a different surface Mn redox behavior leads to differences in the detrimental effects of Mn2+ formation on the surface, which is observed directly after only two cycles. Our results provide strong evidence that a key effect of the (bulk) excess Li doping is actually due to processes on the electrode surfaces.« less
  7. Aqueous electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted significant attention owing to their high safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. However, their applications have been limited by a narrow potential window (~1.23 V), beyond which the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions occur. Here, we report the formation of layered Mn 5O 8 pseudocapacitor electrode material with a well ordered hydroxylated interphase. A symmetric full cell using such electrodes demonstrates a stable potential window of 3.0 V in an aqueous electrolyte, as well as high energy and power performance, nearly 100% coulombic efficiency and 85% energy efficiency after 25,000 charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore,more » the interplay between hydroxylated interphase on the surface and the unique bivalence structure of Mn 5O 8 suppresses the gas evolution reactions, offers a two-electron charge transfer via Mn 2+/Mn 4+ redox couple, and provides facile pathway for Na-ion transport via intra-/inter-layer defects of Mn 5O 8.« less
    Cited by 10Full Text Available
  8. Recent progress in the understanding of percolation theory points to cation-disordered lithium-excess transition metal oxides as high-capacity lithium-ion cathode materials. Nevertheless, the oxygen redox processes required for these materials to deliver high capacity can trigger oxygen loss, which leads to the formation of resistive surface layers on the cathode particles. Here, we demonstrate here that, somewhat surprisingly, fluorine can be incorporated into the bulk of disordered lithium nickel titanium molybdenum oxides using a standard solid-state method to increase the nickel content, and that this compositional modification is very effective in reducing oxygen loss, improving energy density, average voltage, and ratemore » performance. We argue that the valence reduction on the anion site, offered by fluorine incorporation, opens up significant opportunities for the design of high-capacity cation-disordered cathode materials.« less
  9. Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer’s optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small sourcemore » (~1μm) and detector pixels (~5μm) with high line density gratings (~3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. As a result, we propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.« less
  10. In this paper, an endstation with two high-efficiency soft x-ray spectrographs was developed at Beamline 8.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The endstation is capable of performing soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, and, in particular, resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS). Two slit-less variable line-spacing grating spectrographs are installed at different detection geometries. The endstation covers the photon energy range from 80 to 1500 eV. For studying transition-metal oxides, the large detection energy window allows a simultaneous collection of x-ray emission spectra with energies ranging from the O K-edge to the Ni L-edge without movingmore » any mechanical components. The record-high efficiency enables the recording of comprehensive two-dimensional RIXS maps with good statistics within a short acquisition time. By virtue of the large energy window and high throughput of the spectrographs, partial fluorescence yield and inverse partial fluorescence yield signals could be obtained for all transition metal L-edges including Mn. Finally and moreover, the different geometries of these two spectrographs (parallel and perpendicular to the horizontal polarization of the beamline) provide contrasts in RIXS features with two different momentum transfers.« less
    Cited by 14Full Text Available

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