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  1. The internal porous core and external dense shell of the three-dimensional cathode substrate, respectively, accommodate and encapsulate a large amount of active material.
  2. Lithium–sulfur batteries have great potential to satisfy the increasing demand of energy storage systems for portable devices, electric vehicles, and grid storage because of their extremely high specific capacity, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness. In spite of all these merits, the practical utilization of lithium–sulfur batteries is impeded by commonly known challenges, such as low sulfur utilization (<80%), short life (<200 cycles), fast capacity fade, and severe self-discharge effect, which mainly result from the i) low conductivity of the active material, ii) serious polysulfide shuttling, iii) large volume changes, and iv) lithium–metal anode contamination/corrosion. Numerous approaches are reported to effectively mitigatemore » these issues. Indeed, such approaches have shown enhanced lithium–sulfur battery performances. However, many reports overlook the critical parameters, including sulfur loading (<13 mg cm-2), sulfur content (<70 wt%), and electrolyte/sulfur ratio (>11 µL mg-1), that significantly affect the analyzed electrochemical characteristics, energy density, and practicality of lithium–sulfur batteries. This review highlights the trends and progress in making cells fulfilling these fabrication parameters and discuss the challenges of the amount of sulfur and electrolyte in fabricating cells with practically necessary parameters and with high electrochemical utilization and efficiency.« less
    Cited by 11
  3. A novel approach to effectively suppress the “polysulfide shuttle” in Li–S batteries is presented by designing a freestanding, three-dimensional graphene/1T MoS 2 (3DG/TM) heterostructure with highly efficient electrocatalysis properties for lithium polysulfides (LiPSs).
  4. Lithium–sulfur batteries are among the most promising low-cost, high-energy-density storage devices. However, the inability to host a sufficient amount of sulfur in the cathode while maintaining good electrochemical stability under a lean electrolyte condition has limited the progress. The main cause of these challenges is the sensitivity of the sulfur cathode to the cell-design parameters (i.e., the amount of sulfur and electrolyte) and the experimental testing conditions (i.e., cycling rates and analysis duration). Here, a hot-pressing method is presented that effectively encapsulates a high amount of sulfur in the cathode within only 5 s, resulting in high sulfur loading andmore » content of, respectively, 10 mg cm -2 and 65 wt%. The hot-pressed sulfur (HPS) cathodes exhibit superior dynamic and static electrochemical performance under a broad cycling-rate (C/20–1C rates) and low electrolyte/sulfur ratio (6 µL mg -1) conditions. The dynamic cell stability is demonstrated by high gravimetric and areal capacities of, respectively, 415–730 mAh g -1 and 7–12 mAh cm -2 at C/20–1C rates with a high capacity retention of over 70% after 200 cycles. As a result, the static cell stability is demonstrated by excellent shelf life with low self-discharge and stable cycle life on storing for over one year.« less
    Cited by 1
  5. Here, a unique 3D hybrid sponge with chemically coupled nickel disulfide–reduced graphene oxide (NiS 2–RGO) framework is rationally developed as an effective polysulfide reservoir through a biomolecule–assisted self–assembly synthesis. An optimized amount of NiS 2 (≈18 wt%) with porous nanoflower–like morphology is uniformly in situ grown on the RGO substrate, providing abundant active sites to adsorb and localize polysulfides. The improved polysulfide adsorptivity from sulfiphilic NiS 2 is confirmed by experimental data and first–principle calculations. Moreover, due to the chemical coupling between NiS 2 and RGO formed during the in situ synthesis, the conductive RGO substrate offers a 3D electronmore » pathway to facilitate charge transfer toward the NiS 2–polysulfide adsorption interface, triggering a fast redox kinetics of polysulfide conversion and excellent rate performance (C/20–4C). Therefore, the self–assembled hybrid structure simultaneously promotes static polysulfide–trapping capability and dynamic polysulfide–conversion reversibility. As a result, the 3D porous sponge enables a high sulfur content (75 wt%) and a remarkably high sulfur loading (up to 21 mg cm –2) and areal capacity (up to 16 mAh cm –2), exceeding most of the reported values in the literature involving either RGO or metal sulfides/other metal compounds (sulfur content of <60 wt% and sulfur loading of <3 mg cm –2).« less
    Cited by 4
  6. A “mediator-ion” solid-electrolyte membrane strategy enables the operation of methyl viologen–air batteries with a neutral anolyte and an acidic catholyte.
  7. Li–S batteries with a high theoretical capacity are considered as the most promising candidate to satisfy the increasing demand for batteries with a high areal capacity. However, the low sulfur loading (<2 mg cm -2) and poor flexibility of current Li–S batteries limit their application in establishing foldable Li–S batteries with a high areal capacity. Here, to solve this problem, we employ here a free-standing flexible tandem sulfur cathode with a remarkably high sulfur loading to demonstrate foldable, high-areal-capacity Li–S batteries. The design of the tandem cathode readily increases the sulfur loading and effectively retards the migration of polysulfides. Therefore,more » the Li–S cell employing the tandem cathode exhibits a high initial areal capacity of 12.3 mA h cm -2 with stable cycling stability even with a high sulfur loading of up to 16 mg cm -2. These tandem cathodes are promising for foldable Li–S cells with a high areal capacity and energy density.« less
    Cited by 20Full Text Available

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