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Author ORCID ID is 0000000301298024
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  1. As global temperatures increase, sea ice loss will increasingly enable commercial shipping traffic to cross the Arctic Ocean, where the ships' gas and particulate emissions may have strong regional effects. Here we investigate impacts of shipping emissions on Arctic climate using a fully coupled Earth system model (CESM 1.2.2) and a suite of newly developed projections of 21st–century trans–Arctic shipping emissions. We find that trans–Arctic shipping will reduce Arctic warming by nearly 1 °C by 2099, due to sulfate–driven liquid water cloud formation. Cloud fraction and liquid water path exhibit significant positive trends, cooling the lower atmosphere and surface. Positivemore » feedbacks from sea ice growth–induced albedo increases and decreased downwelling longwave radiation due to reduced water vapor content amplify the cooling relative to the shipping–free Arctic. Lastly, our findings thus point to the complexity in Arctic climate responses to increased shipping traffic, justifying further study and policy considerations as trade routes open.« less
  2. The netCDF-4 format is widely used for large gridded scientific data sets and includes several compression methods: lossy linear scaling and the non-lossy deflate and shuffle algorithms. Many multidimensional geoscientific data sets exhibit considerable variation over one or several spatial dimensions (e.g., vertically) with less variation in the remaining dimensions (e.g., horizontally). On such data sets, linear scaling with a single pair of scale and offset parameters often entails considerable loss of precision. We introduce an alternative compression method called "layer-packing" that simultaneously exploits lossy linear scaling and lossless compression. Layer-packing stores arrays (instead of a scalar pair) of scalemore » and offset parameters. An implementation of this method is compared with lossless compression, storing data at fixed relative precision (bit-grooming) and scalar linear packing in terms of compression ratio, accuracy and speed. When viewed as a trade-off between compression and error, layer-packing yields similar results to bit-grooming (storing between 3 and 4 significant figures). Bit-grooming and layer-packing offer significantly better control of precision than scalar linear packing. Relative performance, in terms of compression and errors, of bit-groomed and layer-packed data were strongly predicted by the entropy of the exponent array, and lossless compression was well predicted by entropy of the original data array. Layer-packed data files must be "unpacked" to be readily usable. The compression and precision characteristics make layer-packing a competitive archive format for many scientific data sets.« less
  3. The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral componentsmore » in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05 W m −2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 W m −2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, −0.05 and −0.17 W m −2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.« less

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