Lignin-Derived Carbon Fibers as Efficient Heterogeneous Solid Acid Catalysts for Esterification of Oleic AcidHere, the production of biodiesel by the esterification of oleic acid, as an example of free fatty acid (FFA), was explored by using a new solid acid catalyst derived from lignin, a highly abundant low-cost biomass material. The catalyst was synthesized from lignin-derived carbon fiber by straightforward sulfonation and contains 1.86 mmol/g of sulfonic acid (-SO 3H) groups. The catalyst was characterized by a variety of techniques including PXRD, TGA, TPD-MS, SEM, and XPS to understand the surface chemistry and the result of sulfonation. It was found that the sulfonated lignin-derived carbon fiber (CF-SO 3H) catalyst was very efficient atmore »
Beyond the classical kinetic model for chronic graphite oxidation by moisture in high temperature gas-cooled reactorsFour grades of nuclear graphite with various microstructures were subjected to accelerated oxidation tests in helium with traces of moisture and hydrogen in order to evaluate the effects of chronic oxidation on graphite components in high temperature gas cooled reactors. Kinetic analysis showed that the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model cannot consistently reproduce all results. In particular, at high temperatures and water partial pressures oxidation was always faster than the LH model predicts, with stronger deviations for superfine grain graphite than for medium grain grades. It was also found empirically that the apparent reaction order for water has a sigmoid-type variation withmore »
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