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  1. The dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test (DARHT) facility uses bremsstrahlung radiation source spots produced by the focused electron beams from two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) to radiograph large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives. Radiographic resolution is determined by the size of the source spot, and beam emittance is the ultimate limitation to spot size. On the DARHT-II LIA, we measure an emittance higher than predicted by theoretical simulations, and even though this accelerator produces submillimeter source spots, we are exploring ways to improve the emittance. Some of the possible causes for the discrepancy have been investigated using particle-in-cell codes. Finally,more » the simulations establish that the most likely source of emittance growth is a mismatch of the beam to the magnetic transport, which can cause beam halo.« less
  2. The resistive-wall instability results from the Lorentz force on the beam due to the beam image charge and current. If the beam pipe is perfectly conducting, the electric force due to the image charge attracts the beam to the pipe wall, and the magnetic force due to the image current repels the beam from the wall. For a relativistic beam, these forces almost cancel, leaving a slight attractive force, which is easily overcome by external magnetic focusing. However, if the beam pipe is not perfectly conducting, the magnetic field due to the image current decays on a magnetic-diffusion time scale.more » If the beam pulse is longer than the magnetic diffusion time, the repulsion of the beam tail will be weaker than the repulsion of the beam head. In the absence of an external focusing force, this causes a head-to-tail sweep of the beam toward the wall. This instability is usually thought to be a concern only for long-pulse relativistic electron beams. However, with the advent of multipulse, high current linear induction accelerators, the possibility of pulse-to-pulse coupling of this instability should be investigated. Lastly, we have explored pulse-to-pulse coupling using the linear accelerator model for Dual Axis Radiography for Hydrodynamic Testing beam dynamics code, and we present the results of this paper.« less
  3. A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of a relativistic electron diode is presented. The approximation is accurate from non-relativistic through relativistic electron energies. Although it is empirically developed, it has many of the fundamental properties of the exact diode solutions. Lastly, the approximation is simple enough to be remembered and worked on almost any pocket calculator, so it has proven to be quite useful on the laboratory floor.

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