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  1. Presently, the world is experiencing an unprecedented crisis associated with the CO2 produced by the use of fossil fuels to power our economies. As evidenced by the increasing levels in the atmosphere, the reduction of CO2 to biomass by photosynthesis cannot keep pace with production with the result that nature has lost control of the global carbon cycle. In order to restore control of the global carbon cycle to solar-driven processes, highly efficient artificial photosynthesis can augment photosynthesis in specific ways and places. The increased efficiency of artificial photosynthesis can provide both renewable carbon-based fuels and lower net atmospheric levelsmore » of CO2, which will preserve land and support the ecosystem services upon which all life on Earth depends. The development of artificial photosynthetic antennas and reaction centers contributes to the understanding of natural photosynthesis and to the knowledge base necessary for the development of future scalable technologies. This review focuses on the design and study of molecular and hybrid molecular-semiconductor nanoparticle based systems, all of which are inspired by functions found in photosynthesis and some of which are inspired by components of photosynthesis. In addition to constructs illustrating energy transfer, photoinduced electron transfer, charge shift reactions and proton coupled electron transfer, our review covers systems that produce proton motive force.« less

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