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  1. Metal cofactors are required for many enzymes in anaerobic microbial respiration. This paper examined iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc in cellular and abiotic phases at the single-cell scale for a sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfococcus multivorans) and a methanogenic archaeon (Methanosarcina acetivorans) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Relative abundances of cellular metals were also measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Finally, for both species, zinc and iron were consistently the most abundant cellular metals. M. acetivorans contained higher nickel and cobalt content than D. multivorans, likely due to elevated metal requirements for methylotrophic methanogenesis. Cocultures contained spheroid zinc sulfides andmore » cobalt/copper sulfides.« less
  2. [RhIII(*Cp)Cl(X,Y)] n+ complexes {X, Y = Cl, PTA, n = 0 (2); X, Y = en, n = 1 (3, Cl– salt; 4, PF 6– salt); X, Y = acac, n = 0 (5); X, Y = cur, n = 0 (6), where *Cp = pentamethylcyclopentadienato, curH = curcumin; PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.1]decane; en = 1,2-ethanediamine; acac = acetylacetonato = 2,4-pentanedionato(1–)} were synthesized from [Rh(*Cp)(µ-Cl)Cl] 2 (1). While 2–5 were inactive against human epithelial A549 lung-cancer cells in assays of cytotoxicity, and antimetastatic and proapoptotic behaviors, 6 had a cytotoxic activity similar to that of curH over 72 h, but atmore » 24 h in real-time cell migration assays, it was less active, showing slow release of curH. All complexes underwent ligand-exchange reactions with biomolecules and cells within the timeframes of the assays (X-ray absorption spectroscopy). Intracellular elemental distributions (X-ray fluorescence microscopy) showed that 6 effectively delivered curH to cells, where it was released. Other elemental distributions and caspase activities were consistent with preapoptotic activities. As such, 6 is a promising delivery agent for bioactive ligands, such as curH. However, pure curcumin itself showed a previously unrecognized ability to promote migration of A549 cells at subtoxic concentrations in the presence of endothelial growth factor, which may be a concern for its widespread use as a nutritional supplement and as a potential drug. As a result, this aspect warrants further research.« less
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