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Author ORCID ID is 000000026521868X
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  1. Bimetallic and multi-component catalysts often exhibit superior activity and selectivity compared with their single-component counterparts. To investigate the origin of the composition dependence observed in the catalytic activities of CoPd bimetallic catalysts, the compositional and structural evolution of monodisperse CoPd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) were followed under catalytic CO oxidation conditions using ambient pressure X-ray spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the catalysis process induced a reconstruction of the catalysts, leaving CoOx on the NP surface. The synergy between Pd and CoOx coexisting on the surface promotes the catalytic activity of the bimetallic catalysts. Such synergisticmore » effects can be optimized by tuning the Co/Pd ratios in the NP synthesis and reach a maximum at compositions near Co 0.26Pd 0.74, which exhibits the lowest temperature for complete CO conversion. Our combined AP-XPS and TEM studies provide a direct observation of the bimetallic NPs surface evolution under catalytic conditions and its correlation to catalytic properties.« less
  2. Here, we develop a simple one-pot synthetic strategy for the general preparation of nitrogen doped carbon supported metal/metal oxides (Co@CoO/NDC, Ni@NiO/NDC and MnO/NDC) derived from the complexing function of (ethylenediamine)tetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA serves not only as a resource to tune the morphology in terms of the complexation constant for M–EDTA, but also as a nitrogen and oxygen source for nitrogen doping and metal oxide formation, respectively. When the materials are used as electrocatalysts for the oxygen electrode reaction, Co@CoO/NDC-700 and MnO/NDC-700 show superior electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), while Co@CoO/NDC-700 and Ni@NiO/NDC-700 exhibit excellent oxygen evolutionmore » reaction (OER) activities. Taken together, the resultant Co@CoO/NDC-700 exhibits the best catalytic activity with favorable reaction kinetics and durability as a bi-functional catalyst for the ORR and OER, which is much better than the other two catalysts, Pt/C and Ir/C. Moreover, as an air electrode for a homemade zinc–air battery, Co@CoO/NDC-700 shows superior cell performance with a highest power density of 192.1 mW cm -2, the lowest charge–discharge overpotential and high charge–discharge durability over 100 h.« less
  3. Solar-driven photocatalytic conversion of CO 2 into fuels has attracted a lot of interest; however, developing active catalysts that can selectively convert CO 2 to fuels with desirable reaction products remains a grand challenge. For instance, complete suppression of the competing H 2 evolution during photocatalytic CO 2-to-CO conversion has not been achieved before. We design and synthesize a spongy nickel-organic heterogeneous photocatalyst via a photochemical route. The catalyst has a crystalline network architecture with a high concentration of defects. It is highly active in converting CO 2 to CO, with a production rate of ~1.6 × 10 4 μmolmore » hour –1 g –1. No measurable H 2 is generated during the reaction, leading to nearly 100% selective CO production over H 2 evolution. When the spongy Ni-organic catalyst is enriched with Rh or Ag nanocrystals, the controlled photocatalytic CO 2 reduction reactions generate formic acid and acetic acid. As a result, achieving such a spongy nickel-organic photocatalyst is a critical step toward practical production of high-value multicarbon fuels using solar energy.« less
    Cited by 10Full Text Available
  4. In situ microscopy of colloidal nanocrystal growth offers a unique opportunity to acquire direct and straightforward data for assessing classical growth models. For this study, we observe the growth trajectories of individual Ag nanoparticles in solution using in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy. For the first time, we provide experimental evidence of growth rates of Ag nanoparticles in the presence of Pt in solution that are significantly faster than predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory. We attribute these observed anomalous growth rates to the synergistic effects of the catalytic properties of Pt and the electron beam itself. Transiently reduced Pt atoms servemore » as active sites for Ag ions to grow, thereby playing a key role in controlling the growth kinetics. Electron beam illumination greatly increases the local concentration of free radicals, thereby strongly influencing particle growth rate and the resulting particle morphology. Through a systematic investigation, we demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing these synergistic effects for controlling the growth rates and particle morphologies at the nanoscale. Our findings not only expand the current scope of crystal growth theory, but may also lead to a broader scientific application of nanocrystal synthesis.« less
  5. The efficiency with which renewable fuels and feedstocks are synthesized from electrical sources is limited at present by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in pH-neutral media. Here, we took the view that generating transition metal sites with high valence at low applied bias should improve the activity of neutral OER catalysts. Using density functional theory, we find that the formation energy of desired Ni 4+ sites is systematically modulated by incorporating judicious combinations of Co, Fe and non-metal phosphorus. Here we synthesized NiCoFeP oxyhydroxides and probed their oxidation kinetics by employing in situ soft X-ray absorption (sXAS). In situmore » sXAS studies of neutral-pH OER catalysts indicate ready promotion of Ni 4+ under low overpotential conditions. NiCoFeP catalyst outperforms IrO 2 and retains its performance following 100 hours of operation. We showcase NiCoFeP in a membrane-free CO 2 electroreduction system that achieves a 1.99 V cell voltage at 10 mA cm -2, reducing CO 2 into CO and oxidizing H 2O to O 2 with a 64% electricity-to-chemical-fuel efficiency.« less
    Cited by 20Full Text Available
  6. Memristors are promising building blocks for the next generation memory, unconventional computing systems and beyond. Currently common materials used to build memristors are not necessarily compatible with the silicon dominant complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Furthermore, external selector devices or circuits are usually required in order for large memristor arrays to function properly, resulting in increased circuit complexity. Here we demonstrate fully CMOS-compatible, all-silicon based and self-rectifying memristors that negate the need for external selectors in large arrays. It consists of p- and n-type doped single crystalline silicon electrodes and a thin chemically produced silicon oxide switching layer. The device exhibitsmore » repeatable resistance switching behavior with high rectifying ratio (10 5), high ON/OFF conductance ratio (10 4) and attractive retention at 300 °C. We further build a 5-layer 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar array of 100 nm memristors by stacking fluid supported silicon membranes. The CMOS compatibility and self-rectifying behavior open up opportunities for mass production of memristor arrays and 3D hybrid circuits on full-wafer scale silicon and flexible substrates without increasing circuit complexity.« less
  7. Controlling of the particle size and surface strain is the key to tuning the surface chemistry and optimizing the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts. In this study, we show that by introducing both Fe and Co into Pd lattices, the surface strain of Pd nanocatalysts can be tuned to optimize their oxygen reduction activity in both fuel cells and Zn–air batteries. The Pd 2FeCo/C alloy particles are uniquely coated with an ultrathin Fe 2O 3 shell which is in situ formed during a thermal annealing treatment. The thin shell acts as an effective barrier that prevents the coalescence and ripening ofmore » Pd 2FeCo/C nanoparticles. Compared with Pd/C, Pd 2FeCo/C exhibits higher catalytic activity and long-term stability for the ORR, signifying changes in catalytic behavior due to particle sizes and strain effects. Moreover, by spontaneous decoration of Pt on the surface of Pd 2FeCo/C, the Pd 2FeCo@Pt/C core@shell structure was formed and the Pt mass activity was about 37.6 and 112.5 times higher than that on Pt/C in a 0.1 M HClO 4 and KOH solution at 0.9 V, respectively, suggesting an enhanced ORR performance after Pt decoration. More interestingly, Pd 2FeCo@Pt/C also shows a power density of ~308 mW cm -2, which is much higher than that of Pt/C (175 mW cm -2), and excellent durability in a home-made Zn–air battery.« less
    Cited by 10Full Text Available
  8. We here present an innovative approach to increase the electron density of metallic Pd nanoparticles loaded on TiO 2 photocatalysts by coordinating Pd with surface-anchored organic ligands. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure measurements confirm the negative charge on the Pd nanoparticle induced by electron donation from amine groups of the ligands. The electronically modified Pd on TiO 2 exhibits unprecedentedly high photocatalytic H 2O 2 production from O 2 reduction. Mechanistic investigations suggest that the enhanced performance results from electronic tuning of Pd nanoparticles, leading to enhanced charge separation on the TiO2 support, improved activity ofmore » Pd nanoparticles as an oxygen reduction center, and improved selectivity for O2 reduction to produce H 2O 2.« less
  9. The accumulation and extrusion of Ca 2+ in the pre- and postsynaptic compartments play a critical role in initiating plastic changes in biological synapses. In order to emulate this fundamental process in electronic devices, we developed diffusive Ag-in-oxide memristors with a temporal response during and after stimulation similar to that of the synaptic Ca 2+ dynamics. In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle dynamics simulations both demonstrate that Ag atoms disperse under electrical bias and regroup spontaneously under zero bias because of interfacial energy minimization, closely resembling synaptic influx and extrusion of Ca 2+, respectively. Furthermore, the diffusive memristormore » and its dynamics enable a direct emulation of both short- and long-term plasticity of biological synapses, representing an advance in hardware implementation of neuromorphic functionalities.« less
    Cited by 85Full Text Available

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