Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is an abundant, oligomeric protein in the granular component of the nucleolus with roles in ribosome biogenesis. Pentameric NPM1 undergoes liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) via heterotypic interactions with nucleolar components, including ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins which display multivalent arginine-rich linear motifs (R-motifs), and is integral to the liquid-like nucleolar matrix. Here we show that NPM1 can also undergo LLPS via homotypic interactions between its polyampholytic intrinsically disordered regions, a mechanism that opposes LLPS via heterotypic interactions. Using a combination of biophysical techniques, including confocal microscopy, SAXS, analytical ultracentrifugation, and single-molecule fluorescence, we describe how conformational changes withinmore »
DOE PAGES offers free public access to the best available full-text version of DOE-affiliated accepted manuscripts or articles after an administrative interval of 12 months. The portal and search engine employ a hybrid model of both centralized and distributed content, with PAGES maintaining a permanent archive of all full text and metadata.